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The civil wars and Oliver Cromwell

A select bibliography of books and volumes of collected articles
(where books have appeared in several editions, 
the date of the most recent is given)


General studies 
of seventeenth century England

The best general studies of seventeenth century England are: B Coward, The Stuart Age. England 1603-1714 (1994) and D Hirst, England in Conflict, 1603-1660 (1999), both largely chronological in structure; A Woolrych, Britain in Revolution, 1625-60 (2002), an analytical narrative of the thirty-five years from the accession of Charles I to the Restoration; R Lockyer, The Early Stuarts. A Political History of England 1603-42 (1998), which is thematically arranged; and, on society, J Sharpe, Early Modern England. A Social History 1550-1760 (1997) and the briefer overview by B Coward, Social Change and Continuity: England 1550-1750 (1997). D Smith has written two overviews of particular themes: A History of the Modern British Isles 1603-1707 (1998) on Scotland and England and, on England alone, The Stuart Parliaments 1603-89 (1999). J P Kenyon (ed), The Stuart Constitution (1986), A Hughes (ed), Seventeenth Century England. A Changing Culture I (1980) and K Lindley (ed), The English Civil War and Revolution: A Sourcebook (1998) are collections of primary sources.


Political thought and ideology

Political thought and ideology in England in the pre-war decades are assessed in different ways by J Sommerville, Royalists and Patriots: Politics and Ideology in England 1603-40 (1999) and G Burgess, The Politics of the Ancient Constitution (1992). A broader perspective is found in M Goldie & J Burns (eds), The Cambridge History of Political Thought 1450-1700 (1994).


Gender, women 
and the family 

Of the various facets of the social history of early modern England in general and of the civil war period in particular, the field of gender, women and the family has probably attracted most attention in recent years. Good studies include: D Cressy, Birth, Marriage and Death: Ritual, Religion and Life Cycle in Tudor and Stuart England (1997), J Eales, Women in Early Modern England (1998), S Mendelson & P Crawford, Women in Early Modern England (1998), and, with a tighter focus on the mid seventeenth century, C Durston, The Family in the English Revolution (1989) and S Davies, Unbridled Spirits: Women of the English Revolution (1998).


Cultural developments

There has also been a lot of recent work on cultural developments in the early modern period in general and the mid seventeenth century in particular, and on their relationship with politics, religion and society. See, for example: K Sharpe & P Lake (eds), Culture and Politics in Early Stuart England (1994); M Smuts, Culture and Power in England 1585-1685 (1999); N Smith, Literature and Revolution: England 1640-60 (1994); D Norbrook, Writing the Republic: Poetry, Rhetoric and Politics, 1627-60 (1999); S Wiseman, Drama and Politics in the English Civil War (1998); and N H Keeble, The Cambridge Companion to the Writing of the English Revolution (2001).


The reign of
James VI & I,
Charles I

Turning to political history, the reign of James VI and I is best approached via C Durston, James I (1993), the second edition of S Houston, James I (1995), R Lockyer, James VI and I (1998) and P Croft, James I (2002). Similarly, there have recently appeared a cluster of good, concise studies of the reign of Charles I: B Quintrell, Charles I, 1625-40 (1993), M Young, Charles I (1997) and C Durston, Charles I (1998). For both kings, this selection of overlapping but distinct short studies offers a sharper and more up to date picture of the monarch and his reign than any of the older, full-length biographies.


The reigns of 
James I and 
Charles I 
down to 

Three good, wide-ranging collections of articles covering the reigns of James I and Charles I down to 1640/42 are: K Sharpe (ed), Faction and Parliament (1985), born out of a fierce debate about whether to see early Stuart political history as dominated by conflict and constitutional strife (the traditional view) or by harmony and consensus (the 'revisionist' view favoured by the editor of this collection); R Cust & A Hughes (eds), Conflict in Early Stuart England (1989), a wide-ranging collection on political and religious topics, with a particularly good introduction, generally sceptical of the revisionist line; and, still valuable if now a little dated in places, H Tomlinson (ed), Before the English Civil War: Essays in Early Stuart Politics and Government (1983).


themes or developments 
of the pre-war years


The 1620s

The Personal 
Rule of the 


There are several important, detailed studies of particular themes or developments of the pre-war years. On religion, N Tyacke, Anti-Calvinists: The Rise of English Arminianism, 1590-1640 (1987) sees the high-church policies of Charles I as innovative and overthrowing a broad Calvinist consensus in the English church; many historians find this interpretation more convincing than Peter White's attempt in Predestination, Policy and Polemic (1992) to portray the Arminians as merely seeking to re-establish an Elizabethan harmony and unity destroyed by innovating low church Calvinists. Good guides to this controversy can be found in S Doran & C Durston, Princes, Pastors and People. The Church and Religion in England 1529-1689 (1991), especially chapter 2, A Foster, The Church of England 1570-1640 (1994) and K Fincham (ed), The Early Stuart Church (1993), which explores many aspects of religion and the church. Although now a little dated and criticised by some for underplaying confrontation and ideological division, C Russell's Parliaments and English Politics 1621-29 (1979) remains an important study of the 1620s. The early 1620s have been studied in detail by T Cogswell, The Blessed Revolution: English Politics and the Coming of War, 1621-24 (1989), while R Cust explores a key development of the later 1620s in The Forced Loan and English Politics 1626-28 (1987); on the same period, L Reeve charts Charles I and the Road to Personal Rule (1989). On the Personal Rule of the 1630s itself, E S Cope, Politics Without Parliaments 1629-40 (1987) is solid, while K Sharpe, The Personal Rule of Charles I (1992) is a tour de force but is considered by many to be too pro-Charles in its argument and interpretation.


Pre-civil war Scotland

Most of these works focus largely or exclusively on England (and Wales). Pre-civil war Scotland is explored in K Brown, Kingdom or Province? Scotland and the Regal Union (1992), M Lee, The Road to Revolution. Scotland under Charles I, 1625-37 (1985) and A MacInnes, Charles I and the Making of the Covenanting Movement 1625-37 (1991). The slippery path from crisis to war in Scotland after 1637 is explored by D Stevenson, The Scottish Revolution 1637-44 (1973), P Donald, An Uncounselled King: Charles I and the Scottish Troubles 1637-41 (1990) and M Fissel, The Bishops' Wars: Charles I's Campaigns against Scotland 1638-40 (1994).


Pre-civil war 

There is less on pre-civil war Ireland. Still the best starting point is probably the relevant sections of T Moody, F Martin & F Byrne (eds), A New History of Ireland, III. Early Modern Ireland 1534-1691 (1976), though N Canny, Making Ireland British, 1580-1650 (2001) is also very good on the pre-war decades. The impact of Sir Thomas Wentworth, Charles I's chief minister in Ireland during the 1630s, is assessed in C Wedgwood, Thomas Wentworth, First Earl of Strafford. A Revaluation (1961) and H Kearney, Strafford in Ireland, 1633-41 (1989). The collapse into disorder and rebellion is explored by M Perceval-Maxwell, The Outbreak of the Irish Rebellion of 1641 (1994) and, in the northern province, by B MacCuarta (ed), Ulster 1641 (1993).


Descent into war 

The descent into war in all three of Charles's kingdoms is assessed by A Fletcher in The Outbreak of the English Civil War (1981), exploring the interplay between the centre and the provinces in England in 1640-42, while C Russell, The Fall of the British Monarchies, 1637-42 (1991) is a very detailed account of the five years culminating in the outbreak of war in England, highlighting the impact of Scottish and Irish developments on the gathering English crisis, but focusing on developments at Whitehall and Westminster; it is an elegant statement of the 'revisionist' approach of the 1970s and 1980s, with its emphasis on short-term mistakes and errors in high politics.


Descent into war 
(earlier works)

Older attempts to explain the (descent into) war in terms of socio-economic problems and as a class struggle, as seen in works such as C Hill, The English Revolution, 1640 (republished 1976) and L Stone, The Crisis of the Aristocracy (1965), were generally viewed with scepticism in the late twentieth century, though B Manning, The English People and the English Revolution (1991), R Brenner, Merchants and Revolution (1993) and J Holstun, Ehud’s Dagger (2000) hold (in different ways) to this general approach.


Causes of the English civil war

Broader assessments of the causes of the English civil war include: L Stone, The Causes of the English Revolution, 1529-1642 (1986), which combines long-, medium- and short-term causes; C Russell, The Causes of the English Civil War (1990), which focuses principally on medium- and short-term factors; A Hughes, The Causes of the English Civil War (1998), which is sceptical of interpretations which are narrowly political or exclusively short-term; N Carlin, The Causes of the English Civil War (1998), also stressing longer term social and economic problems alongside political and religious issues; and, taking a more explicitly historiographical approach, R Richardson, Debate on the English Revolution (1998).


General studies of the 1640s 

There are two excellent general studies of the 1640s (and the 1650s, too): G Aylmer, Rebellion or Revolution? England from Civil War to Restoration (1986), which has a useful, detailed table of events, and I Roots, The Great Rebellion (1996). D Kennedy, The English Revolution, 1642-49 (2000) provides a fast-moving analytical narrative of the decade’s events. There are also three wide-ranging collections of essays: J Morrill, The Nature of the English Revolution (1993) brings together Morrill's earlier essays, particularly on religion and allegiance in the civil war and on the nature and consequences of the 'English Revolution', while R Cust & A Hughes (eds), The English Civil War (1997) and P Gaunt (ed), The English Civil War (2000) are both collections of essays by different authors, though with substantial commentary from the editors; Cust & Hughes focus mainly on the background to and causes of the war, with papers gathered under the headings of politics, religion, and culture and society, while Gaunt ranges more widely over the 1640s, covering the causes, course and consequences of the civil war. C Wedgwood's twin studies of The King's Peace 1637-41 (1955) and The King's War, 1641-47 (1958) provide a pleasant if now very dated narrative of these years. S Gardiner's magisterial History of the Great Civil War 1642-49 (4 vols, republished 1987) provided the late Victorian foundation upon which all subsequent historians have built.


History of the English civil wars 

The best studies of the military (and wider) history of the English civil wars include: J Adair, By the Sword Divided (1997); M Ashley, The English Civil War (1990), a well-illustrated, traditionally-based account; M Bennett, The English Civil War (1995), a brief overview in the 'Seminar Studies' series; M Bennett's much more detailed The Civil Wars in Britain and Ireland (1997); M Bennett, The Civil Wars Experienced (2000), which seeks to reconstruct the experience of the 'common people' from 1638 to 1661; A H Burne & P Young, The Great Civil War: A Military History (1998); C Carlton, Going to Wars: The Experience of the British Civil Wars 1638-51 (1992), emphasising the heavy and destructive impact of the war; I Gentles, The New Model Army in England, Ireland and Scotland 1645-53 (1991); J Kenyon, The Civil Wars of England (1988), which seeks to blend the military and political history of the war years; J Kenyon & J Ohlmeyer (eds), The Civil Wars: A Military History of England, Scotland and Ireland (1998), which takes a thematic rather than a chronological approach; J Morrill, Revolt in the Provinces (1999), focusing upon the impact of, and reactions to, the civil war in the provinces of England and Wales; P Newman, Atlas of the English Civil War (1998); R Ollard, This War Without an Enemy (1983); S Reid, All the King's Armies: A Military History of the English Civil War (1998); J S Wheeler, The Irish and British Wars, 1637-54 (2002); and A Woolrych, Battles of the English Civil War (1992)


Detailed military studies

More detailed military studies of the war include: D Blackmore, Arms and Armour of the English Civil War (1990); K Roberts, Soldiers of the English Civil War I. Infantry (1989), J Tincey, Soldiers of the English Civil War II. Cavalry (1990); P Elliot-Wright, English Civil War (1997), on uniforms; P Edwards, Dealing in Death (2000), on how the armies were supplied; J Barratt, Cavaliers: The Royalist Army at War (2000); P Newman, The Old Service: Royalist Regimental Colonels in the Civil War 1642-46 (1997); C Firth, Cromwell's Army (1992); and various studies of individual battles, of which L Wenham, The Siege of York (1994), P Young, Edgehill (1995), G Foard, Naseby (1995), P Young, Marston Moor (1997), K Roberts & J Tincey, Edgehill (2001) and J Barratt, The Battle for York: Marston Moor (2002) are the most recently published/republished.


The impact of the civil war

Two collections by J Morrill focus upon the impact of the civil war: Reactions to the English Civil War (1982) and The Impact of the English Civil War (1991). S Porter, Destruction in the English Civil Wars (1994) explores the physical impact of the conflict. The physical remains of the war are examined in P Gaunt, The Cromwellian Gazetteer (1986) and P Harrington, Archaeology of the English Civil War (1992).


Local studies

Some of the most interesting work on the civil war period over the last two or three decades has taken the form of local studies, exploring the history of a particular town, county or region. Some have been narrowly military, but most have a broader political, administrative and/or social and economic coverage. Some focus on the war years alone, but most place the 1640s within a broader chronological span. R Richardson has edited two valuable collections on this theme: Town and Countryside in the English Revolution (1992) and Local Dimensions of the English Civil War (1997).


Town studies

Amongst the best town studies are: M Atkin & L Laughlin, Gloucester and the Civil War (1992); J Lynch, For King and Parliament; Bristol and the Civil War (1999); V Pearl, London and the Outbreak of the Puritan Revolution (1961); K Lindley, Popular Politics and Religion in Civil War London (1997); the collection edited by S Porter on London and the Civil War (1996); M Stoyle, From Deliverance to Destruction: Rebellion and Civil War in an English City (1996) on Exeter; P Tennant, The Civil War in Stratford upon Avon (1996); and D Underdown, Fire From Heaven (1992) on Dorchester. Some smaller settlements and communities have received attention, including P Warner, Bloody Marsh (2000), a study of conflict and dislocation in a Suffolk coastal village, and Richard Gough’s History of Myddle (various modern editions), the deservedly famous contemporary account of this Shropshire settlement in the mid and later seventeenth century.


County studies

Amongst the best county studies are: M Atkin, The Civil War in Worcestershire (1995); T Bracher & R Emmett, Shropshire in the Civil War (2000); A Coleby, Central Government and the Localities: Hampshire (1987); A Duffin, Faction and Faith: The Political Allegiance of the Cornish Gentry 1600-42 (1996); D Eddershaw & E Roberts, The Civil War in Oxfordshire (1995); A Everitt, The Community of Kent and the Great Rebellion (1966); A Fletcher, A County Community in Peace and War: Sussex (1975); T Goodwin, Dorset in the Civil War (1996); C Holmes, Seventeenth Century Lincolnshire (1980); A Hughes, Politics, Society and the Civil War in Warwickshire (1987); W Hunt, The Puritan Moment: The Coming of Revolution to an English County (1983) on Essex; T Maclachlan, The Civil War in Wiltshire (1997); J Morrill, Cheshire 1630-60 (1974); K Parker, Radnorshire from Civil War to Restoration (2000); P Scaybrooke, The Civil War in Leicestershire and Rutland (1996); M Stoyle, Loyalty and Locality: Popular Allegiances in Devon during the English Civil War (1994), which attempts to show how and why the allegiances of the Devonshire non-elite were divided; S Roberts, Recovery and Restoration in an English County: Devon Local Administration, 1646-70 (1985); A Warmington, Civil War, Interregnum and Restoration in Gloucestershire (1997); and G Blackwood, Tudor and Stuart Suffolk (2001).


Regional studies

Amongst the best regional studies are: C Holmes, The Eastern Association (1974), focusing on East Anglia and the east Midlands in the opening years of the war; R Hutton, The Royalist War Effort 1642-46 (2000), which assesses how the royalists exercised, supplied and administered their war machine in Wales and the west Midlands; R Sherwood, Civil War in the Midlands (1992); P Tennant, Edgehill and Beyond (1992), stressing how the civil war in the south Midlands disrupted the life of ordinary people in that region; J Wroughton, Unhappy Civil War (1999), again stressing the disruption caused by the war in the west country; and D Underdown, Revel, Riot and Rebellion (1985), a rich study of Dorset, Somerset and Wiltshire, which attempts to demonstrate how civil war divisions/allegiances followed on from broad topographical, economic and cultural divisions in the pre-war decades, an argument which some historians find convincing while others are sceptical.


Civil war in Wales,
Scotland &


The civil war in Wales is assessed in P Gaunt, A Nation Under Siege (1991) and N Tucker, The Civil War in North Wales (1992), the war in Scotland by David Stevenson in The Scottish Revolution 1637-44 (1973) and Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Scotland 1644-51 (1977) and the war in Ireland by the relevant parts of J Ohlmeyer (ed), Ireland: From Independence to Occupation (1995), which takes the story down to 1660. The over-arching 'British' nature of the conflicts has been explored in B Bradshaw & J Morrill (eds), The British Problem, c1534-1707 (1996) and P Gaunt, The British Wars, 1637-51(1997).


army during the 
mid and late 

Different assessments of the role of the parliamentary army during the mid and late 1640s are found in M Kishlansky's The Rise of the New Model Army (1979), the relevant chapters of I Gentles's The New Model Army in England, Ireland and Scotland (1991) and A Woolrych's masterly account of the role of the army in politics 1647-48 in Soldiers and Statesmen (1987). From a less military perspective, R Ashton, Counter Revolution: The Second Civil War and its Origins (1994) provides a very detailed study of the years 1646-48.


The trial and execution of the king

The political prelude to and context of the trial and execution of the king are assessed in D Underdown, Pride's Purge (1971). C Wedgwood's The Trial of Charles I (1964) is the classic account of that episode, though the 350th anniversary produced a burst of new studies, including R Partridge, 'O Horrable Murder'. The Trial, Execution and Burial of Charles I (1998) and G Edwards, The Last Days of Charles I (1999). J Peacey has edited an important collection on The Regicides and the Execution of Charles I (2001). S Barber places regicide in its political and broader context in Regicide and Republicanism. Politics and Ethics in the English Revolution (1998), while B Manning stresses the critical role of the year of the trial and execution in 1649: Crisis of the English Revolution (1992).


Political and religious 

There is a mass of material on the political and religious radicalism unleashed during and after the civil war. Despite some criticism, C Hill, The World Turned Upside Down (1972) is still the classic account. Other broad studies include F Dow, Radicalism in the English Revolution (1985) and J McGregor & B Reay (eds), Radical Religion in the English Revolution (1984). Puritanism is reassessed by W Lamont, Puritanism and Historical Controversy (1996), J Spurr, English Puritanism (1998), and C Durston & J Eales (eds), The Culture of English Puritanism, 1560-1700 (1996).


Fifth Monarchists,
& Ranters

Most radical groups have attracted individual studies. A Bradstock (ed), Winstanley and the Diggers (2000) is a good recent collection on the Diggers. On the Levellers, G Aylmer, The Levellers in the English Revolution (1975) is now rather dated; A Sharpe, The English Levellers (1998) reprints and examines some Leveller documents. The Putney debates, in which Leveller ideas and the aspirations of the New Model Army came together, are explored in a collection edited by M Mendle, The Putney Debates of 1647 (2001), while A Southern Forlorn Hope (2001) re-examines a group of ‘soldier radicals’. The standard work on the Fifth Monarchists is B Capp, The Fifth Monarchy Men (1972), on the Quakers, B Reay, The Quakers and the English Revolution (1985), and on the Muggletonians, C Hill, B Reay & W Lamont, The World of the Muggletonians (1983). The Ranters, once calmly surveyed by A Morton, The World of the Ranters (1970) and J Friedman, Blasphemy, Immorality and Anarchy (1987), have been reassessed and their very existence questioned by J C Davis, Fear, Myth and History (1986). P Seaver, Wallington's World (1985) is a fascinating account of a radical Londoner.


The period 

There are a number of excellent works on the period 1649-60, especially A Woolrych, England Without a King (1983), T Barnard, The English Republic (1997) and, the most detailed of the three, R Hutton, The British Republic (2000). J Morrill (ed), Revolution and Restoration (1992) and the older but still valuable G Aylmer (ed), The Interregnum (1972) are collections of essays on the same period. S Gardiner's majestic narrative of the 1640s continued well into the 1650s as his History of the Commonwealth and Protectorate (4 vols, republished 1991). After his death, his work was continued by C Firth, Last Years of the Protectorate (2 vols, 1909).


government 1649-53

The best account of central government 1649-53 is provided by A Worden, The Rump Parliament (1974) down to April 1653, continued by A Woolrych's detailed account of events down to December 1653 in Commonwealth to Protectorate (1982). S Kelsey, Inventing a Republic (1997) is a broader study of the issues surrounding the establishment of non-monarchical rule.


Oliver Cromwell

The Protectorate of 1653-59 is usually approached via the figure who served as head of state to September 1658, Oliver Cromwell. There have been scores of biographies. Despite their age S Gardiner, Oliver Cromwell (1899) and C Firth, Oliver Cromwell (1900) are still valuable, R Paul, The Lord Protector (1955) is strong on Cromwell and religion and C Hill's study God's Englishman (1972) certainly gets beneath the skin. I Roots (ed), Cromwell, A Profile (1972) is a strong if slightly dated collection, while J Morrill (ed), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (1990) is outstanding on various aspects of the man, his life and policies. Three good, recent, concise biographies are B Coward, Oliver Cromwell (1991), P Gaunt, Oliver Cromwell (1996) and J C Davis, Oliver Cromwell (2001). Cromwell's portraiture is explored in J Cooper, Oliver the First: Contemporary Images of Oliver Cromwell (1999), while L Knoppers, Constructing Cromwell: Ceremony, Portrait and Print, 1645-61 (2000) assesses the contemporary projection and representation of Cromwell. The conflicting interpretations of Cromwell amongst contemporaries and generations of historians are charted in R Richardson (ed), Images of Oliver Cromwell (1993). T Carlyle (ed), The Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell (1845 and many later editions) and I Roots (ed), Speeches of Oliver Cromwell (1989) enable us to approach Cromwell via his own writings and utterances.


The Protectorate

There are a number of studies of aspects of the 1650s in general and the Protectorate in particular. The best starting point is now B Coward, The Cromwellian Protectorate (2002), a lively and thorough introduction to the period 1653-59. R Sherwood, The Court of Oliver Cromwell (1977) studies the Protectoral court, while R Sherwood, Oliver Cromwell: King in All But Name (1997) stresses the regal nature of Cromwellian rule. M Ashley, Financial and Commercial Policy under the Commonwealth and Protectorate (1972) is still the best study of that area. On the naval arm, see B Capp, Cromwell's Navy (1989). We need more on the army in this period, though D Hainsworth, Swordsmen in Power (1997) is a pleasant account, and C Durston, Cromwell’s Major-Generals (2001) is an excellent study of the militarised local government system of 1655-6. I Roots (ed), 'Into Another Mould'. Aspects of the Interregnum (1998) is an important collection on essays on aspects of central and local government. On foreign policy, see J Jones, The Anglo-Dutch Wars of the Seventeenth Century (1996), T Venning, Cromwellian Foreign Policy (1995), S Pincus, Protestantism and Patriotism: Ideologies and the Making of English Foreign Policy 1650-68 (1996) and the introduction to M Roberts (ed), Swedish Diplomats at Cromwell's Court (1988). M Braddick, The Nerves of State: Taxation and National Finance 1558-1714 (1996) and J Wheeler, The Making of a World Power: War and Military Revolution in Seventeenth Century England (1999) put a strong case for the importance of the 1640s and 1650s in the development of a powerful British state and in the fiscal and administrative changes which underpinned that development.


Richard Cromwell

In some ways the best account of Richard Cromwell remains that written by C Firth for the Dictionary of National Biography (1888). R Ramsey's Richard Cromwell (1935) is a pleasant account - see also Ramsey's Henry Cromwell (1933) and Studies in Cromwell's Family Circle (1930). E M Hause, Tumble-Down Dick (1972), J Butler, A Biography of Richard Cromwell (1994) and J Hammer, Protector (1997) are more recent accounts of Richard.

Ireland & Scotland 
in the 1650s

On Ireland in the 1650s, T Reilly, Cromwell, An Honourable Enemy (1998) is a revisionist re-examination of Cromwell's Irish campaign of 1649-50; J Wheeler, Cromwell in Ireland (1999) takes a more traditional line. T Barnard, Cromwellian Ireland (2000) is the best account of Ireland through the 1650s. On Scotland in the 1650s, J Grainger, Cromwell Against the Scots (1997) retells the story of Cromwell's Scottish campaign of 1650-51, while M Atkin, Cromwell's Crowning Mercy (1998) examines the Worcester campaign and the Scottish defeat there. F Dow, Cromwellian Scotland (2000) is the best account of Scotland through the 1650s.

1659-60 and the Restoration

The collapse of 1659-60 and the Restoration are explored in J Miller, The Restoration and the England of Charles II (1997), R Hutton, The Restoration (1985), P Seaward, The Restoration (1991) and N Keeble, The Restoration (2002); J Miller, After the Civil Wars (2001) extends the coverage further into the Restoration era. C Hill, The Experience of Defeat (1983) charts what happened when God apparently deserted the parliamentarians, when - as one parliamentarian officer put it - 'the Lord spat in our face'.



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